Ann Gronowski, Author at Cancer Therapy Advisor

Ann Gronowski

All articles by Ann Gronowski

Eclampsia

At a Glance Eclampsia is defined as the occurrence of 1 or more generalized convulsions and/or unexplained coma during pregnancy or postpartum in women with signs and symptoms of preeclampsia (hypertension and proteinuria). The reported incidence of eclampsia ranges from 4 to 6 cases per 10,000 pregnancies in developed countries and higher in developing countries.…

HELLP Syndrome

At a Glance HELLP syndrome is characterized by hemolysis (H), elevated liver enzymes (EL), and low platelets (LP). The incidence of HELLP syndrome among pregnant patients ranges from 0.1 to 0.2%. It develops in approximately 10-20% of patients with severe preeclampsia/eclampsia. Symptoms typically develop in the third trimester, but second trimester or postpartum disease is…

Premature Labor

At a Glance Premature delivery is defined as delivery before the completion of 37 weeks of gestation. The causes of preterm delivery are not completely understood but may include preterm labor, preterm spontaneous rupture of membranes, cervical incompetence, or other medical problems. Since clinical and laboratory evidence suggest multi-factorial causes of preterm delivery, diagnostic, preventive,…

Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)

At a Glance Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), also known as hyaline membrane disease (HMD), is most frequently caused by insufficient surfactant production, resulting in structural lung immaturity in newborns. The risk of RDS is highest in premature births (>60% at 29 weeks of gestation, 20% at 34 weeks of gestation, and <5% at 37 weeks…

Infertility

At a Glance The definition of infertility is the inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse. Infertility can be classified as primary, when no previous successful pregnancies have occurred, or secondary, when there have been previous conceptions. The most common causes for infertility are hormonal abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In addition, anatomic…

Gestational Thyrotoxicosis

At a Glance Gestational thyrotoxicosis is a rare occurrence during pregnancy and is usually due to Grave’s disease (see chapter on Grave’s disease). Presentation is usually in the mid- to late-first trimester. In addition to hypermesis gravidarum, other symptoms are those exhibited in hyperthyroidism: heat intolerance, sweating, angina, tachycardia, nervousness, and moist, warm skin. There…

Postpartum Thyroiditis (PPT)

At a Glance The term porphyria refers to a group of disorders in which porphyrins (or their precursors) accumulate in body fluids and tissues. All but one of the porphyrias is hereditary. Each disease is caused by a partial deficiency in one of the enzymes of heme synthesis. With the exception of two very rare…

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