Bina Ahmed

All articles by Bina Ahmed

Chest Pain Without Epicardial Stenosis – Diagnosis and Treatment of Spasm and Microvascular Angina

Cardiac Chest Pain without Epicardial Stenosis: What Every Physician Needs to Know. Patients with angina-like chest pain and objective evidence of ischemia in the setting of non-flow limiting epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) are often diagnosed with cardiac syndrome X (CSX). With advances in diagnostic technologies, we now have a better understanding of this patient…

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