Daniel E. Forman

All articles by Daniel E. Forman

Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

General description of procedure, equipment, technique What is cardiopulmonary exercise testing? Cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) testing is a provocative test that combines standard methods of electrocardiogram (ECG) stress testing with indices of gas exchange. The exercise component entails the same challenges and mechanisms as standard ECG stress testing (i.e., a progressive exercise stimulus [usually on a…

CAD and the Elderly: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Considerations

I. CAD and the Elderly: What every physician needs to know. Although age has a direct bearing on cardiovascular disease, the pace and nature of aging vary among individuals. Relative differences in biology (e.g., telomere length, genetic constitution), lifelong health habits (e.g., nutrition, exercise, dental care), cardiac risk factors (e.g., hypertension, cholesterol, tobacco, insulin resistance),…

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