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samanthalubey

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Renal Cell Carcinoma

At a Glance Renal cell carcinoma, also known as the hypernephroma, clear cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or the Grawitz tumor, is a tumor of the kidney and accounts for 85% of primary renal malignancies in adults. Most commonly, it is found in patients older than 40 years of age with a 2:1 male predominance. It is…

Wilms Tumor

At a Glance Wilms tumor of the kidney, also known as a nephroblastoma, typically occurs in children 2-5 years of age, with 95% of tumors occurring before 10 years of age. It is the primary renal tumor of childhood, affecting 1 out of 10,000 children in the United States. Between 5 and 10% of cases…

Large Intestine, Infectious Diarrhea: Inpatient

At a Glance Diarrhea in an inpatient is suspicious for an infectious etiology. What Tests Should I Request to Confirm My Clinical Dx? In addition, what follow-up tests might be useful? The following tests should be ordered: C. difficile – by PCR if available; otherwise toxin A/B or C, difficile GDH antigen with toxin A/B…

Essential Thrombocythemia

At a Glance Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm (CMPN) characterized by a clonal proliferation of megakaryocytes that typically leads to a marked thrombocytosis. Approximately one-half of patients are asymptomatic at diagnosis, whereas the other half presents with thrombosis or bleeding. Of note, many chronic myeloproliferative neoplasia (CMPN) may present with thrombocytosis, and…

Polycythemia Vera (PV)

At a Glance Polycythemia vera (PV) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by a proliferation of megakaryocytes, granulocytes, and erythrocytes in the bone marrow, leading to thrombocytosis, leukocytosis, and erythrocytosis in the peripheral blood. Patients are often asymptomatic, and it is detected only when routine blood work shows increased hematocrit or hemoglobin. If symptomatic, patients…

Mantle Cell Lymphoma

At a Glance Mantle cell lymphoma is a small B-cell lymphoma that is clinically more aggressive than other small B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. It commonly presents at a higher stage, including bone marrow and peripheral blood involvement. It is a disease of adults and is more common in men. What Tests Should I Request to Confirm…

Follicular Lymphoma

At a Glance Follicular lymphoma is one of the most common B-cell lymphomas, accounting for approximately 20% of all adult lymphomas in the United States and Western Europe. It is primarily a disease of middle age to older adults, with a median age in the sixth decade and only very rarely occurring in the pediatric…

Plasma Cell Myeloma

At a Glance Plasma cell myeloma is a bone marrow-based clonal plasma cell proliferation. It comprises 10-15% of hematopoietic neoplasms. It is typically diagnosed as a result of evaluations for anemia, renal failure, and/or bone lytic lesions. When serum or urine protein electrophoresis studies detect a monoclonal immunoglobulin (paraprotein, M-protein) secreted by these neoplasms, the…

Hairy Cell Leukemia

At a Glance Hairy cell leukemia is an indolent neoplasm of mature B cells. The name is derived from the appearance of the cells, lymphoid cells with hair-like cytoplasmic projections, in the peripheral blood and bone marrow. Patients are usually middle-aged or older, frequently present with fatigue, weakness or fever, and are classically found to…

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

At a Glance Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune multisystem disease that is characterized by the presence of several autoantibodies, formation of immune complexes (ICs), and inflammation in several organs. SLE symptoms may develop slowly over months or years, or they may appear suddenly. They are widely based on the involvement of several organ…

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