Khalighi Mehraneh

All articles by Khalighi Mehraneh

Malignancy-associated hypercalcemia

Malignancy-associated hypercalcemia results from increased bone resorption and release of calcium from bone secondary to four different mechanisms present in underlying malignant processes. 1. Local osteolytic hypercalcemia results from boney metastasis. These cells cause a local release of cytokines, such as TNF and IL-1, which then stimulate the differentiation of osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts…

Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

Syndrome characterized by abnormal proliferation of skin and osseous tissues at distal parts of the extremities causing clubbing and/or boney pain due to periostosis. Occasionally, synovial effusion of larger joints can also be present. Primary HOA is an autosomal dominant trait with variable expression which is seen nine times more in boys than in girls…

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