Marilyn Augustine

All articles by Marilyn Augustine


Are You Sure the Patient Has Hypocalcemia? Symptoms Most patients with hypocalcemia are asymptomatic, particularly in the outpatient setting. Symptomatic hypocalcemia most commonly occurs in an inpatient setting with serum ionized calcium below 4.3 mg/dL [1.1 mmol/L] or serum total calcium concentration below 7.0 mg/dL [1.8 mmol/L]. However, the presence and extent of symptoms depends…

Tumor induced hypercalcemia

Are You Sure the Patient Has Malignancy-Associated Hypercalcemia (MAHC)? Symptoms and signs The development of symptoms depends on the degree and duration of hypercalcemia. Age, comorbidities, rate of rise, and concurrent medication use affect presenting symptoms. Generally people with serum calcium levels above 13 mg/dL [3.25 mmol/L] are symptomatic, though some patients with a very…

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