Mark Shapiro

All articles by Mark Shapiro

Traumatic brain injury

1. Description of the problem TBI is an isolated head injury or head injury associated with polytrauma. The impact in severe head injury is due to either focal injury (contusion, hemorrhage) or diffuse axonal injury. Secondary brain injury occurs over subsequent hours and includes surgical mass lesions, cerebral edema, hypotension, hypoxia, hyper/hypocarbia, hyper/hypoglycemia, anemia, fever,…

Subdural hematoma, subdural hemorrhage

1. Description of the problem What every clinician needs to know Subdural hematoma (SDH) is defined as an intracranial accumulation of blood within the subdural space that typically occurs due to traumatic brain injury. There are two main types of SDH distinguished both on the basis of radiography and time. Acute SDH is diagnosed within…

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