Paul M. Palevsky, Author at Cancer Therapy Advisor

Paul M. Palevsky

All articles by Paul M. Palevsky

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus Also known as: DI Related conditions Polyuria, polydipsia, nocturia, hypernatremia 1. Description of the problem What every clinician needs to know Diabetes insipidus (DI) is characterized by decreased activity of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) vasopressin (VP) due to partial or complete failure of secretion (central or hypothalamic DI) or renal resistance to its…

Acute Kidney Injury: Contrast Nephrotoxicity

Does this patient have contrast-associated acute kidney injury? Description of the problem Contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CA-AKICA-AKI) is characterized by an abrupt decline in kidney function following the intravascular administration of iodinated contrast media. CA-AKI manifests as an increase in the serum creatinine concentration (SCr) within 2-5 days following the administration of contrast. In severe…

Acute Kidney Injury: Complications associated with Acute Kidney Injury

Does this patient have complications associated with acute kidney injury? Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is often associated with systemic complications including volume overload; electrolyte and acid-base disturbances, particularly hyponatremia, hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis; nutritional and gastrointestinal disturbances; anemia and bleeding diatheses, and increased risk of infection. It is often difficult, however, to differentiate complications…

Dysnatremia: Hyponatremia

Dysnatremia: Hyponatremia Also known as: Hypoosmolarity 1. Description of the problem Hyponatremia is defined as a serum Na less than135 mEq/L. Hyponatremia may occur in the setting of hypotonciity (hypotonic hyponatremia) or as the result of accumulation of a non-electrolyte solute in the extracellular compartment (hypertonic hyponatremia). Hypotonic hyponatremia usually results from impaired water homeostasis…

Dysnatremia: Hypernatremia

Dysnatremia: Hypernatremia Also known as: Hyperosmolarity 1. Description of the problem Hypernatremia is a hyperosmolar state that results from disturbances in water balance. It is most often the result of water loss in excess of effective plasma solute (either pure water loss or loss of hypotonic fluid) and less commonly due to hypertonic sodium gain.…

Disorders of water balance

Disorders of Water Balance 1. Description of the problem Normal water homeostasis Water homeostasis is tightly regulated in order to maintain plasma osmolality in a narrow normal range of between 280 and 295 mOsm/kg. Disturbances of water homeostasis result in abnormalities in body fluid osmolality. Since sodium is the most abundant cation in the extracellular…

Contrast-induced AKI, contrast nephropathy, contrast-induced nephropathy, radiocontrast nephropathy

1. Description of the problem Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is characterized by an abrupt decline in kidney function following the intravascular administration of iodinated contrast media. CIAKI manifests as an increase in the serum creatinine concentration (SCr) within 2-5 days following the administration of contrast. In severe cases, it may be associated with oliguria…

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