Rokea el-Azhary

All articles by Rokea el-Azhary

Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (Leprosy)

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is an immune-mediated complication of leprosy, characterized by the presence of multiple inflammatory cutaneous nodules and systemic symptoms such as fever, malaise, arthritis, iritis, neuritis and lymphadenitis. Histopathologic examination demonstrates an inflammatory infiltrate of neutrophils with vasculitis and/or panniculitis, deposition of immune complexes and complement…

Leprosy (Hansen's disease, Elephantiasis)

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which primarily affects the nerves and skin. In the generalized forms, patients may exhibit involvement of the nasal mucosa (anterior nasal septum), oral cavity (soft and hard palates), pharynx and larynx, ocular structures (sclera, episclera, ciliary body and…

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