Ben Adams

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All articles by Ben Adams

Encephalitis

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know about eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease How do you define eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease? Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs) are a broad group of diseases characterized by gastrointestinal complaints and intestinal eosinophilia. A mucosal biopsy is required to make the diagnosis. EGIDs have been classified in two ways, either according to the…

Kawasaki Disease

At a Glance Vasculitis is an inflammation of the blood vessel wall. In some cases, the vasculitis may result from immune complex deposition along the vessel wall, leading to a proinflammatory response. Cryoglobulins are antibodies that precipitate from the serum at cold temperatures, then redissolve when the temperature of the serum increases. Cryoglobulins can cause…

Appendicitis

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has appendicitis? What should you expect to find? The typical presentation for appendicitis is in a young patient (10-50 years of age – peak incidence second and third decades), who presents with 12-36 hours of vague abdominal pain, initially localized in the periumbilical…

Bronchiolitis

Preliminary Diagnosis: Bronchiolitis I. What imaging technique is first-line for this diagnosis? Chest radiographs: PA and lateral views II. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of this technique for diagnosis of bronchiolitis. Advantages Relatively inexpensive, fast imaging modality Highly portable Exposes the patient to negligible radiation Disadvantages Highly sensitive but less specific in detailing any underlying…

Appendicitis

Preliminary Diagnosis: Appendicitis I. What imaging technique is first-line for this diagnosis? CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis with IV and without oral contrast II. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of this technique for diagnosis of appendicitis. Advantages CT scanning is diagnostic for appendicitis and can detail any secondary complications such as periappendiceal abscesses,…

Achalasia

Preliminary Diagnosis: Achalasia I. What imaging technique is first-line for this diagnosis? Single-contrast barium esophagram II. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of this technique for diagnosis of achalasia. Advantages Can accurately depict characteristic appearance of achalasia Inexpensive No signficant complications typify this outpatient procedure Can suggest diagnosis of pseudoachalasia Disadvantages Exposure to ionizing radiation Does…

Pancreatic Cancer

Preliminary Diagnosis: Pancreatic Cancer I. What imaging technique is first-line for this diagnosis? Pancreatic protocol CT abdomen and pelvis with and without contrast II. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of this technique for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Advantages Enhancement patterns are often characteristic of different pancreatic neoplastic lesions, which may narrow the diagnosis Simultaneously evaluates…

Pneumonia

Preliminary Diagnosis: Pneumonia I. What imaging technique is first-line for this diagnosis? Chest x-ray, PA, and lateral. II. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of this technique for diagnosing pneumonia. Advantages Highly portable and inexpensive imaging modality. Relatively fast imaging modality. Exposes the patient to minimal ionizing radiation. Sensitive in diagnosing pneumonia. Disadvantages Less adept in…

Euthyroid sick syndrome

Euthyroid sick Syndrome I. What every physician needs to know. Patients hospitalized with acute, severe illness are frequently found to have low triiodothyronine (T3) levels with normal or low normal thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. This constellation of findings is known by several names: euthyroid sick syndrome, low T3 syndrome, and non-thyroidal…

Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic Cancer I. What every physician needs to know. Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal forms of cancer as it typically presents at an advanced stage and can be challenging to treat. It is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States for both men and women, and the overall…

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