Ben Adams

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All articles by Ben Adams

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma I. What every physician needs to know. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), also known as hepatoma, is the most common primary malignant neoplasm of the liver arising from hepatocytes and is second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Most HCC cases arise in the setting of cirrhosis (80-90%), particularly secondary to chronic viral hepatitis. HCC…

Muir-Torre Syndrome

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? The Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) is a cancer-associated genodermatosis characterized by multiple cutaneous lesions comprised of solitary or multiple sebaceous proliferations (benign and malignant) and keratoacanthoma(s), in association with variable systemic cancers that are integral to Lynch syndrome (LS or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer [HNPCC] phenotype. To diagnose MTS within…

Perinatal Period Anxiety Disorders

1. What every clinician should know Clinical features and incidence Clinical features Core features of anxiety disorders include excessive worry or concern that impacts the functioning of the patient’s life. The specific features of the anxiety disorder depend on which disorder (such as generalized anxiety, panic, etc.) is being described. In pregnancy, presenting features of…

Marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue MALTomas

At a Glance Marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue MALTomas are low-grade small B cell lymphomas that occur in extranodal sites (i.e., the primary site is not lymph node or spleen). They usually occur in adults and are slightly more common in women. The most commonly affected organs are the stomach, intestine, ocular adnexae,…

Melanoma

What every physician needs to know: Melanoma: an introduction and its initial evaluation Melanoma occurs in over 76,300 individuals in the US annually, with over 10,000 deaths. If diagnosed early, melanoma is easily cured. The AJCC staging provides valuable information on prognosis. In early stage T1a, stage IA the cure rate is well over 90%.…

Needlestick Injury and Postexposure Prophylaxis

I. Problem/Challenge. Needlestick injuries are a common occupational hazard in the hospital setting. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention approximately 385,000 hospital-based healthcare workers experience occupational percutaneous injuries annually. More than 20 blood-borne pathogens might be transmitted from contaminated needles or sharps, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and…

Trouble-shooting the Vent

I. Problem/Challenge. There are three general problems that may occur in patients who are mechanically ventilated: 1. Difficulty with oxygenation 2. Difficulty with ventilation 3. Difficulty with elevated peak airway pressuresContinue Reading In all three cases, a calm and cooperative patient is essential. Anxiolytics should be used if needed to support the patient and maximize…

Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic Cancer (Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma) What every physician needs to know: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is the most common cancer of the pancreas. It is currently the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Unfortunately, the disease comes to clinical attention late in its course and, as a result, the vast majority…

Hepatitis B

HEPATITIS B IN PREGNANCY 1. What every clinician should know Pregnant women are routinely screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Approximately 1% will screen positive. A majority of those who test positive are chronic carriers of hepatitis B. Hepatitis B may be acquired vertically (from an infected mother), via sexual transmission from an infected…

Appendicitis

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has appendicitis? What are the typical findings for this disease? Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal pediatric surgical emergency. There are approximately 70,000 cases of pediatric appendicitis each year. Despite its frequency, appendicitis remains a diagnostic challenge when patients do not present…

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