Steven J. Hughes

All articles by Steven J. Hughes

Gallstones and acute cholecystitis

How can I be sure that the patient has gallstones/acute cholecystitis? Biliary colic is caused by obstruction of the outflow of bile from the contracting gallbladder in response to vagal stimulation and the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK). Acute cholecystitis is caused by persistent obstruction of the cystic duct by a gallstone. As flowing bile is aseptic…

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