This fact sheet describes patient-directed strategies for finding clinical trials.
An overview of the potential immune-related adverse events that can arise from treatment with checkpoint inhibitors.
Both the chemotherapy regimen selected and therapeutic dose intensity used in treatment factor into the calculation of neutropenia risk.
Traditional genetic testing historically included the sequential analysis of single and generally well-described genes involved in heritable cancers.
Some data suggest that psychotherapy may benefit patients with cancer, but higher-quality research is needed.
The effect of polypharmacy and noncancer mortality on patient survival and other outcomes in cancer varies by study.
Though it is clear that cancer is associated with an extreme financial burden, the extent of the burden varies widely.
There is concern that added nitrates and nitrites are associated with an increased risk of cancer, but epidemiologic data have been inconclusive thus far.
The mechanisms that drive this benefit are not well-understood, and it is believed that the benefit is not just a result of reducing risk factors such as body weight.
An overview of the research regarding the use of massage to improve cancer- or treatment-related symptoms and overall quality of life for patients with cancer.
Multiple studies have examined the possible association between cell phone usage and increased cancer risk, but study designs, potential biases, and interpretations of statistical outcomes leave conclusions uncertain.
All meta-analyses conducted to date show a significant association between indoor tanning use and an increased risk of melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancers.
Though mechanisms of anticancer effects of resveratrol have been identified, the ability to translate these findings to in-human studies is a challenge.
Several meta-analyses suggest that coffee consumption may decrease the risk of many types of cancers, but for some cancers, the data remain mixed or indicate an increased risk.
Though the mechanisms of action of acupuncture are not well-understood and continue to be an area of research, hypotheses include changes in neurohormones and immunomodulation through cytokines.
While some in vitro data suggests anticancer activity, animal and in-human studies fail to show efficacy and the risk of cyanide toxicity make amygdalin not recommended for use.
Cannabis and its synthetic cannabinoids have been studied for medicinal properties across multiple disease states.
In-human studies have evaluated the use of EOs in a supportive role, and though EOs appear to have some efficacy in this setting, larger studies are needed to confirm their effects.
Cascara use is not recommended because there are insufficient data for establishing its safety, and there have been reports of liver injury with high doses.
In vitro and in vivo data suggest that selective amino acid deprivation may have anticancer activity.
Bloodroot-containing products sold as a cure for cancer can be highly toxic and result in disfigurement.
Proponents of Ayurveda claim that it is as effective as Western medicine but few, if any, well-designed clinical trials have been conducted using the Ayurvedic approach.
Preliminary data suggest that alpha lipoic acid, particularly in combination with other compounds, may improve quality of life and may have some anticancer activity.
In vitro and in vivo data suggest that acai berry extracts have anticancer properties, and warrant additional studies in humans.
Oral nicotinamide may reduce the number and size of AKs and prevent the development of new non-melanoma skin cancers among patients at high risk.
Two small studies suggest that AHCC may improve outcomes among patients with liver cancer.
High fish consumption may provide a protective benefit against gastrointestinal cancers, thyroid cancer, multiple myeloma, and childhood leukemia.
Epidemiologic data of flaxseed dietary intake and high enterolactone serum concentrations suggest that flaxseed consumption may reduce the risk of breast cancer.
Epidemiologic evidence suggests that high poultry consumption is not associated with an increased risk of most cancers, including cancer mortality.
The association of cancer risk and alcohol varies by tumor type, as alcohol consumption has been associated with several different types of cancers.
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