Oral nicotinamide may reduce the number and size of AKs and prevent the development of new non-melanoma skin cancers among patients at high risk.
Two small studies suggest that AHCC may improve outcomes among patients with liver cancer.
High fish consumption may provide a protective benefit against gastrointestinal cancers, thyroid cancer, multiple myeloma, and childhood leukemia.
Epidemiologic data of flaxseed dietary intake and high enterolactone serum concentrations suggest that flaxseed consumption may reduce the risk of breast cancer.
Epidemiologic evidence suggests that high poultry consumption is not associated with an increased risk of most cancers, including cancer mortality.
The association of cancer risk and alcohol varies by tumor type, as alcohol consumption has been associated with several different types of cancers.
Though there are no human studies of the effects of pomegranate consumption on breast cancer prevention or treatment, multiple in vitro studies suggest that pomegranate extracts, juice, or seed oil have anticancer properties.
Epidemiologic evidence suggests that a proinflammatory diet, as measured by the dietary inflammatory index, can increase the risk of developing CRC, particularly proximal colon cancer.
Epidemiologic evidence is mixed regarding the protective effect of garlic consumption against different cancer types.
Epidemiologic data, primarily from case-control studies, suggest that different types of pesticides are associated with specific types of cancer among children and adults.
Epidemiologic evidence suggests that high consumption of red meat, particularly beef, is associated with an increased risk of several types of cancer.
There are no data to suggest that xylitol is carcinogenic or is associated with an increased risk of cancer. Two in vitro studies suggest that xylitol may have antiproliferative properties, but this has not been investigated among human subjects.
Several case-control and prospective cohort studies conducted in a Korean population suggest that ginseng intake can reduce the risk of cancer, though this was not supported by other cohort studies in different populations.
The available human studies do not support the role of Ginkgo biloba as a treatment for cancer, but the published studies were not placebo-controlled, making it difficult to draw conclusions from the data.
In vivo studies suggest that extracts of St John's wort may have apoptotic effects on cancer cells, but human studies have not been conducted to test this hypothesis.
Vitamin E supplementation appears to reduce the risk of chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity and several radiation-induced toxicities, though one study found increased recurrence rates with its use.
Fish oil supplementation may improve chemotherapy-related outcomes, such as time to tumor progression, and may be protective against certain toxicities.
The data regarding sugar consumption and the increased risk of cancer are not consistent, making it difficult to draw definitive conclusions.
Data indicate that beta-Carotene should not be recommended as a cancer prevention agent due to lack of efficacy and potential harm among smokers or those exposed to asbestos.
This fact sheet is a review of study data about the relationship between zinc supplementation and cancer incidence and outcomes.
There has been great interest in selenium as a potential chemopreventative agent against various types of cancers, particularly of the prostate.
About 60% of Americans are deficient in magnesium, including up to 60% of patients who are critically ill.
Evidence is mixed about the relationship between calcium intake and colorectal/prostate cancers.
Despite controversy, many studies have found no significant association between aspartame consumption and the incidence of different types of solid and hematologic malignancies.
Vitamin A supplementation likely does not reduce chemotherapy efficacy and, for many patients, is unlikely to cause harm.
Though some studies reported improvements in clinical outcomes and quality of life with vitamin C treatment, these findings have not been replicated in randomized controlled studies.
Data suggest that a low-fat diet with an increase in vegetable and fruit intake may lower the risk of all-cause mortality among women with breast cancer.
Multiple studies evaluated the role of vitamin B6 in cancer risk and its efficacy as an antitumor or anti-toxicity agent.
Additional large, well-designed studies are needed to clarify the roles of dietary nutrients in HPV infection persistence and cancer risk.
There is limited epidemiologic and lab-experiment evidence that green tea and green tea compounds are capable at high concentrations of affecting tumor biology.
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