Fact Sheet

Resveratrol and Cancer

Resveratrol and Cancer

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Though mechanisms of anticancer effects of resveratrol have been identified, the ability to translate these findings to in-human studies is a challenge.

Coffee and Cancer

Coffee and Cancer

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Several meta-analyses suggest that coffee consumption may decrease the risk of many types of cancers, but for some cancers, the data remain mixed or indicate an increased risk.

Acupuncture and Cancer

Acupuncture and Cancer

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Though the mechanisms of action of acupuncture are not well-understood and continue to be an area of research, hypotheses include changes in neurohormones and immunomodulation through cytokines.

Amygdalin and Cancer

Amygdalin and Cancer

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While some in vitro data suggests anticancer activity, animal and in-human studies fail to show efficacy and the risk of cyanide toxicity make amygdalin not recommended for use.

Cannabis and Cancer

Cannabis and Cancer

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Cannabis and its synthetic cannabinoids have been studied for medicinal properties across multiple disease states.

Essential Oils and Cancer

Essential Oils and Cancer

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In-human studies have evaluated the use of EOs in a supportive role, and though EOs appear to have some efficacy in this setting, larger studies are needed to confirm their effects.

Cascara and Cancer

Cascara and Cancer

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Cascara use is not recommended because there are insufficient data for establishing its safety, and there have been reports of liver injury with high doses.

Controlled Amino Acid Therapy and Cancer

Controlled Amino Acid Therapy and Cancer

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In vitro and in vivo data suggest that selective amino acid deprivation may have anticancer activity.

Bloodroot and Cancer

Bloodroot and Cancer

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Bloodroot-containing products sold as a cure for cancer can be highly toxic and result in disfigurement.

Ayurvedic Medicine and Cancer

Ayurvedic Medicine and Cancer

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Proponents of Ayurveda claim that it is as effective as Western medicine but few, if any, well-designed clinical trials have been conducted using the Ayurvedic approach.

Alpha Lipoic Acid and Cancer

Alpha Lipoic Acid and Cancer

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Preliminary data suggest that alpha lipoic acid, particularly in combination with other compounds, may improve quality of life and may have some anticancer activity.

Acai Berry and Cancer

Acai Berry and Cancer

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In vitro and in vivo data suggest that acai berry extracts have anticancer properties, and warrant additional studies in humans.

Nicotinamide and Cancer

Nicotinamide and Cancer

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Oral nicotinamide may reduce the number and size of AKs and prevent the development of new non-melanoma skin cancers among patients at high risk.

AHCC and Cancer

AHCC and Cancer

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Two small studies suggest that AHCC may improve outcomes among patients with liver cancer.

Fish Consumption and Cancer

Fish Consumption and Cancer

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High fish consumption may provide a protective benefit against gastrointestinal cancers, thyroid cancer, multiple myeloma, and childhood leukemia.

Flaxseed Lignans and Cancer

Flaxseed Lignans and Cancer

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Epidemiologic data of flaxseed dietary intake and high enterolactone serum concentrations suggest that flaxseed consumption may reduce the risk of breast cancer.

Poultry Consumption and Cancer

Poultry Consumption and Cancer

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Epidemiologic evidence suggests that high poultry consumption is not associated with an increased risk of most cancers, including cancer mortality.

Alcohol Consumption and Cancer

Alcohol Consumption and Cancer

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The association of cancer risk and alcohol varies by tumor type, as alcohol consumption has been associated with several different types of cancers.

Pomegranate and Breast Cancer

Pomegranate and Breast Cancer

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Though there are no human studies of the effects of pomegranate consumption on breast cancer prevention or treatment, multiple in vitro studies suggest that pomegranate extracts, juice, or seed oil have anticancer properties.

Proinflammatory Diet and Colorectal Cancer

Proinflammatory Diet and Colorectal Cancer

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Epidemiologic evidence suggests that a proinflammatory diet, as measured by the dietary inflammatory index, can increase the risk of developing CRC, particularly proximal colon cancer.

Garlic and Cancer

Garlic and Cancer

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Epidemiologic evidence is mixed regarding the protective effect of garlic consumption against different cancer types.

Pesticides and Cancer

Pesticides and Cancer

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Epidemiologic data, primarily from case-control studies, suggest that different types of pesticides are associated with specific types of cancer among children and adults.

High Red Meat Intake and Cancer

High Red Meat Intake and Cancer

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Epidemiologic evidence suggests that high consumption of red meat, particularly beef, is associated with an increased risk of several types of cancer.

Xylitol and Cancer

Xylitol and Cancer

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There are no data to suggest that xylitol is carcinogenic or is associated with an increased risk of cancer. Two in vitro studies suggest that xylitol may have antiproliferative properties, but this has not been investigated among human subjects.

Ginseng and Cancer

Ginseng and Cancer

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Several case-control and prospective cohort studies conducted in a Korean population suggest that ginseng intake can reduce the risk of cancer, though this was not supported by other cohort studies in different populations.

Ginkgo Biloba and Cancer

Ginkgo Biloba and Cancer

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The available human studies do not support the role of Ginkgo biloba as a treatment for cancer, but the published studies were not placebo-controlled, making it difficult to draw conclusions from the data.

St John's Wort and Cancer

St John's Wort and Cancer

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In vivo studies suggest that extracts of St John's wort may have apoptotic effects on cancer cells, but human studies have not been conducted to test this hypothesis.

Vitamin E and Cancer

Vitamin E and Cancer

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Vitamin E supplementation appears to reduce the risk of chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity and several radiation-induced toxicities, though one study found increased recurrence rates with its use.

Fish Oil and Cancer

Fish Oil and Cancer

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Fish oil supplementation may improve chemotherapy-related outcomes, such as time to tumor progression, and may be protective against certain toxicities.

Sugar and Cancer

Sugar and Cancer

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The data regarding sugar consumption and the increased risk of cancer are not consistent, making it difficult to draw definitive conclusions.

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