TNBC presents a challenge in treatment due to its relative insensitivity to current targeted therapies, highly aggressive metastatic potential, likelihood of relapse, and poor overall survival. TNBC is a “catch all” clinical term defined by absence of ER/PR/HER2, but is in fact heterogenous, predominantly but not totally basal-like and BRCA1-positive in about 10% of cases. Although new treatment targets being investigated have had modest results so far in this group of patients, a better understanding of BC molecular types will help further classify this population, allow better-targeted therapy, and hopefully improve prognosis and outcomes for these difficult-to-treat patients.
1. Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2012. Ca Cancer J Clin. 2012;62:10-29.
2. Fornier M, Fumoleau P. The paradox of triple-negative breast cancer: novel approaches to treatment. Breast J. 2012;18(1):41-51.
3. Carey LA. Directed therapy of subtypes of triple-negative breast cancer. Oncologist. 2011;16(Suppl 1):71-78.
4. Anders CK. Winer EP, Ford JM, et al. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition: “targeted” therapy for triple-negative breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:4702-4710.
5. Anders CK, Carey LA. Understanding and treating triple-negative breast cancer. Oncology (Williston Park). 2008;22(11):1233-1243.
6. Metzger-Filho O, Tutt A, de Azambuja E, et al. Dissecting the heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(15):1879-1887.
7. Brufsky A, Valero V, Tiangco B, et al. Second-line bevacizumab-containing therapy in paitents with triple-negative breast cancer: subgroup analysis of the RIBBON-2 trail. Breast Cancer Rest Treat. 2012;133(3):1067-1075.
8. Anders CK, Carey LA. Biology, metastatic patterns, and treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer. 2009; 9(Suppl 2):S73-S81.
9. Lin NU, Claus E, Sohl J, Razzak AR, Arnaout A, Winer EP. Sites of distant relapse and clinical outcomes in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer: high incidence of CNS metastases. Cancer. 2008;113(10):2368-2645.
10. Brady-West DC, McGrowder DA. Triple-negative breast cancer: therapeutic and prognostic implications. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 2011;12:2129-2133.
11. Heitz F, Harter P, Lueck HJ, et al. Triple-negative and HER2-overexpressing breast cancers exhibit an elevated risk and an earlier occurrence of cerebral metastases. Eur J Cancer. 2009;45(16):2792-2798.
12. Liedtke C, Mazouni C, Hess KR, et al. Response to neoadjuvant therapy and long-term survival in triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(8):1275-1281.
13. Millikan RC, Newman B, Tse C-K, et al. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;109(1):123-139.