HealthDay News — Mammography with integrated two-dimensional (2D) imaging together with tomosynthesis with three-dimensional (3D) imaging is associated with improved breast cancer detection, according to a study published online April 25 in The Lancet Oncology.

Stefano Ciatto PhD, from Azienda Provinciale Servizi Sanitari in Trento, Italy, and colleagues conducted screen-reading in sequential phases, using 2D only and integrated 2D and 3D mammography in 7,292 women aged 48 years and older who attended population-based breast-cancer screening.

The authors identified 59 breast cancers (52 invasive) in 57 women. Thirty-nine cancers were detected on both 2D and integrated 2D and 3D screening. Twenty cancers were detected with integrated 2D and 3D only versus none with 2D only. Per 1,000 screens, the cancer detection rates were 5.3 cancers for 2D only and 8.1 for integrated screening. The incremental cancer detection rate that could be attributed to 2D and 3D mammography was 2.7 cancers, per 1,000 screens.

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False positive recalls occurred in 395 screens: 181 at both screen reads, 141 with 2D only, and 73 with integrated screening. The number of false positive recalls could have been reduced by 17.2% with conditional recall (positive integrated 2D and 3D mammography as a condition for recall), without missing any cancers detected in the study population.

“Integrated 2D and 3D mammography improves breast-cancer detection and has the potential to reduce false positive recalls,” the authors write. “Randomized controlled trials are needed to compare integrated 2D and 3D mammography with 2D mammography for breast cancer screening.”

Several authors disclosed financial ties to Hologic, which partially funded the study.

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