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Incidence of anal cancer is increasing, and the diagnosis and management is still challenging to the modern physician/surgeon, especially as symptoms of anal neoplasia are similar to common benign anorectal diseases. In addition, there may be reluctance by patients to see their doctor regarding anorectal problems, thus leading to a delay in diagnosis or even a misdiagnosis.

Obtaining a concomitant history, thorough examination, and appropriately directed management can lead to better outcomes in many patients. Every anal lesion should be examined with care and reviewed at an interval or referred to a specialist with multidisciplinary team input.

Establishing a screening program in the UK for detecting AIN for high-risk groups, and subsequently introducing a HPV vaccination program, remains debatable, but should be considered if the incidence of AIN in this population continues to increase.


Author Contributions

Conceived the concept: BG. Analyzed the data: BG. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: BG, PZ. Made critical revisions: PZ, FK. All authors reviewed and approved of the final manuscript.

ACADEMIC EDITOR: William CS Cho, Editor in Chief

FUNDING: Authors disclose no funding sources.

COMPETING INTERESTS: Authors disclose no potential conflicts of interest.

This paper was subject to independent, expert peer review by a minimum of two blind peer reviewers. All editorial decisions were made by the independent academic editor. All authors have provided signed confirmation of their compliance with ethical and legal obligations including (but not limited to) use of any copyrighted material, compliance with ICMJE authorship and competing interests disclosure guidelines and, where applicable, compliance with legal and ethical guidelines on human and animal research participants. 


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Source: Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology.