- Fox RD, Mazmanian PE, Putnam RW. Changing and Learning in the Lives of Physicians. New York, NY: Praeger; 1989.
- Talarico L, Chen G, Pazdur R. Enrollment of elderly patients in clinical trials for cancer drug registration: a 7-year experience by the US Food and Drug Administration. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(22):4626-4631.
- Hutchins LF, Unger JM, Crowley JJ, et al. Underrepresentation of patients 65 years of age or older in cancer-treatment trials. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(27):2061-2067.
- Tournigand C, André T, Bonnetain F, et al. Adjuvant therapy with fluorouracil and oxaliplatin in stage II and elderly patients (between ages 70 and 75 years) with colon cancer: subgroup analyses of the Multicenter International Study of Oxaliplatin, Fluorouracil, and Leucovorin in the Adjuvant Treatment of Colon Cancer trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(27):3353- 3360.
- Xeloda® (capecitabine) [prescribing information]. South San Francisco, CA: Genentech, Inc; 2016.
- Imbruvica® (ibrutinib) [prescribing information]. Horsham, PA: Janssen Biotech, Inc; 2017.
- Cascinu S, Del Ferro E, Catalano G. Toxicity and therapeutic response to chemotherapy in patients aged 70 years or older with advanced cancer. Am J Clin Oncol. 1996;19(4):371-374.
- Fisher B, Anderson S, Wickerham DL, et al. Increased intensification and total dose of cyclophosphamide in a doxorubicin- cyclophosphamide regimen for the treatment of primary breast cancer: findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-22. J Clin Oncol. 1997;15(5):1858-1869.
- Lichtman SM, Hollis D, Miller AA, et al; Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB 9762). Prospective evaluation of the relationship of patient age and paclitaxel clinical pharmacology: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB 9762). J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(12):1846-1851.
- Muss HB, Berry DA, Cirrincione C, et al; Cancer and Leukemia Group B Experience. Toxicity of older and younger patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer: the Cancer and Leukemia Group B Experience. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(24):3699-3704.
- Calvo E, Walko C, Dees EC, Valenzuela B. Pharmacogenetics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics in the era of targeted therapies. In: Dizon DS, Pennell N, eds. American Society of Clinical Oncology 2016 Educational Book. Alexandria, VA: ASCO University; 2016:e175-e184. https://media4.asco.org/176/edbook/2016_edbook.pdf. Accessed January 7, 2019.
- Hurria A, Blanchard MS, Synold TW, et al. Age-related changes in nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: influence of chronological versus functional age. Oncologist. 2015;20(1):37-44.
- Extermann M, Boler I, Reich RR, et al. Predicting the risk of chemotherapy toxicity in older patients: the Chemotherapy Risk Assessment Scale for High-Age Patients (CRASH) score. Cancer. 2012;118(13):3377-3386.
- American College of Physicians (ACP). High Value Care Coordination (HVCC) Toolkit. https://www.acponline.org/clinical-information/ high-value-care/resources-for-clinicians/high-value-care-coordination- hvcc-toolkit. Accessed January 7, 2019.
- Hagerty RG, Butow PN, Ellis PA, et al. Cancer patient preferences for communication of prognosis in the metastatic setting. J Clin Oncol. 2014;22(9):1721-1730.
- Hagerty RG, Butow PN, Ellis PM, et al. Communicating with realism and hope: incurable cancer patients’ views on the disclosure of prognosis. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(6):1278-1288.
- Kadakia KC, Moynihan TJ, Loprinzi CL. Palliative communications: addressing chemotherapy in patients with advanced cancer. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(suppl 3):829-832.
- Temel JS, Greer JA, Muzikansky A, et al. Early palliative care for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010;33(8):733-742.
Additional Reading: Williams SK, Braxton JM, Gosdin M, et al. Evidence-Based Care for the Elderly: Uses of “the Grandmother Principle”. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2017;28(1):7.
© 2018 by the authors.