(HealthDay News) — Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors have an increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs), especially oropharyngeal SMNs, according to a study published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

Researchers identified demographic and clinical risk factors for HPV-associated SMNs among AYA cancer survivors in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-9 registries diagnosed from 1976 to 2015. Participants started follow-up 2 months after their original diagnosis.

The researchers found that 1369 of the 374,408 cancer survivors had an HPV-associated SMN, which occurred an average of 5 years after their first cancer. AYA survivors had a significantly increased risk of any HPV-associated SMN and of oropharyngeal SMNs (standardized incidence ratios [SIR], 1.70 and 2.17, respectively). The risk of cervical SMNs was lower in survivors overall (SIR, 0.85) but was increased in Hispanic AYA survivors (SIR, 1.46).

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Compared with the general population, AYAs first diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma, leukemia, and Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma had increased risks for HPV-associated SMNs. In age-period-cohort models, oropharyngeal SMN incidence decreased over time. Among survivors with first HPV-related cancers, but not those whose first cancers were not HPV-related, chemotherapy and radiotherapy were associated with any HPV-associated SMN.

“HPV-SMNs are preventable through screenings and vaccination,” the researchers wrote. “Recommending preventative care from diagnosis onwards among AYA survivors is of great importance.”

One researcher disclosed financial ties to the pharmaceutical industry.

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