(HealthDay News) — Particulate air pollutants are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, particularly adenocarcinoma, and both gaseous and particulate pollutants are linked to heart failure hospitalization and mortality, according to two studies published online July 10 in The Lancet Oncology and The Lancet.

Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Ph.D., from the Danish Cancer Society Research Center in Copenhagen, and colleagues examined the correlation between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence using data from 17 cohort studies based in nine European countries.

During a mean follow-up of 12.8 years, the researchers found that there were 2,095 incident lung cancer cases diagnosed. A significant association was observed for lung cancer and particulate matter with a diameter of less than 10 µm (PM10) (hazard ratio, 1.22). Significant associations were observed for adenocarcinomas with PM10 and PM2.5 (hazard ratio, 1.51 and 1.55, respectively).

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Anoop S.V. Shah, M.B.Ch.B., from the University of Edinburgh in the United Kingdom, and colleagues conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 35 articles to examine the correlation between gaseous and particulate air pollutants and heart failure hospitalizations or mortality.

The researchers found that increases in carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide, but not ozone, and increases in particulate matter concentration correlated with heart failure hospitalization or death. The most robust associations were seen on the day of exposure, with more persistent effects noted for PM2.5.

“Air pollution is a pervasive public health issue with major cardiovascular and health economic consequences, and it should remain a key target for global health policy,” Shah and colleagues write.