Limitation of the Study
Our study is retrospective, limiting the measurement of some key statistics. As a one-center study, the generalization of the results is restricted. Most of the patients with advanced stage were only diagnosed with fine needle aspiration or small biopsies, and thus limited tissue was available for further studies.
Gemcitabine therapy, ERCC1 negativity and treatment with platinum therapy, ECOG PS 0 or 1, and female gender correlated with improved overall survival in patients with advanced NSCLC.
Conceived and designed the experiments: NK, MS, AM. Analyzed the data: MR. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: NK, AZ, MS, MA. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: PP, SS, HB, NP, MA. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: NK, MS, AZ, PP, SS. Jointly developed the structure and arguments for the paper: PP, SS, AZ, MR, AM. Made critical revisions and approved final version: NK, MS, HB, NP. All authors reviewed and approved of the final manuscript.
Nagla A. Karim1, Hai Bui2, Peterson Pathrose3, Sandra Starnes3, Ninad Patil4, Mahmoud Shehata1, Ahmed Mostafa5, MB Rao6, Ahmad Zarzour7, and Marshall Anderson8
1Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA. 2Department of Pathology, Cincinnati VA Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA. 3Divison of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA. 4Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. 5Division of Pulmonary, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA. 6Division of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA. 7Internal Medicine Department, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA. 8Division of Hematology/Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
- Greenlee RT, Hill-Harmon MB, Murray T, Thun M. Cancer statistics, 2001. CA Cancer J Clin. 2001;51(1):15–36.
- Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Collaborative Group. Chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis using updated data on individual patients from 52 randomised clinical trials. BMJ. 1995;311(7010):899–909.
- Rosell R, Gomez-Codina J, Camps C, et al. A randomized trial comparing preoperative chemotherapy plus surgery with surgery alone in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 1994;330(3):153–158.
- Olaussen KA, Dunant A, Fouret P, et al. DNA repair by ERCC1 in non-small-cell lung cancer and cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(10):983–91.
- Lord RV, Brabender J, Gandara D, et al. Low ERCC1 expression correlates with prolonged survival after cisplatin plus gemcitabine chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2002;8(7):2286–2291.
- Papadaki C, Sfakianaki M, Ioannidis G, et al. ERCC1 and BRAC1 mRNA expression levels in the primary tumor could predict the effectiveness of the second-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy in pretreated patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2012;7(4):663–671.
- Roth JA, Carlson JJ. Prognostic role of ERCC1 in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Lung Cancer. 2011;12(6):393–401.
- Zheng Z, Chen T, Li X, Haura E, Sharma A, Bepler G. DNA synthesis and repair genes RRM1 and ERCC1 in lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(8):800–808.
- Seto T, Higashiyama M, Funai H, et al. Prognostic value of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its flt-1 and KDR receptors in stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2006;53(1):91–6.
- Friboulet L, Olaussen KA, Pignon JP, et al. ERCC1 isoform expression and DNA repair in non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(12):1101–1110.
- Sangha R, Price J, Butts CA. Adjuvant therapy in non-small cell lung cancer: current and future directions. Oncologist. 2010;15(8):862–872.
- Rosell R, Cobo M, Isla D, Camps C, Massuti B. Pharmacogenomics and gemcitabine. Ann Oncol. 2006;17(suppl 5):v13–16.
- Rosell R, Danenberg KD, Alberola V, et al. Ribonucleotide reductase messenger RNA expression and survival in gemcitabine/cisplatin-treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10(4):1318–1325.
- Donnem T, Al-Saad S, Al-Shibli K, et al. Inverse prognostic impact of angiogenic marker expression in tumor cells versus stromal cells in non small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13(22 pt 1):6649–6657.
- Ramirez JL, Rosell R, Taron M, et al. 14-3-3 sigma methylation in pretreatment serum circulating DNA of cisplatin-plus-gemcitabine-treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients predicts survival: The Spanish Lung Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(36):9105–9112.
- Tang X, Liu D, Shishodia S, et al. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is frequently expressed in lung cancer and preneoplastic lesions. Cancer. 2006;107(11):2637–2646.
- Suthar SK, Sharma N, Lee HB, Nongalleima K, Sharma M. Novel dual inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and cyclooxygenase- 2 (COX-2): synthesis, in vitro anticancer activity and stability studies of lantadene-non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) conjugates. Curr Top Med Chem. 2014;14(8):991–1004.
- Arriagada R, Dunant A, Pignon JP, et al. Long-term results of the international adjuvant lung cancer trial evaluating adjuvant Cisplatin-based chemotherapy in resected lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(1):35–42.
- Butts CA, Ding K, Seymour L, et al. Randomized phase III trial of vinorelbine plus cisplatin compared with observation in completely resected stage IB and II non-small-cell lung cancer: updated survival analysis of JBR-10. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(1):29–34.
- Douillard JY, Rosell R, De Lena M, et al. Adjuvant vinorelbine plus cisplatin versus observation in patients with completely resected stage IB-IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer (Adjuvant Navelbine International Trialist Association [ANITA]): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2006;7(9):719–727.
- Keller SM, Adak S, Wagner H, et al. A randomized trial of postoperative adjuvant therapy in patients with completely resected stage II or IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. N Engl J Med. 2000;343(17):1217–1222.
- Scagliotti GV, Fossati R, Torri V, et al. Randomized study of adjuvant chemotherapy for completely resected stage I, II, or IIIA non-small-cell Lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95(19):1453–1461.
- Waller D, Peake MD, Stephens RJ, et al. Chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer: the surgical setting of the Big Lung Trial. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2004;26(1):173–182.
- Strauss GM, Herndon JE II, Maddaus MA, et al. Adjuvant paclitaxel plus carboplatin compared with observation in stage IB non-small-cell lung cancer: CALGB 9633 with the Cancer and Leukemia Group B, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, and North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study Groups. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(31):5043–5051.
- Bepler G, Williams C, Schell MJ, et al. Randomized international phase III trial of ERCC1 and RRM1 expression-based chemotherapy versus gemcitabine/carboplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(19):2404–2412.