The risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) is significantly reduced among Black patients who receive annual prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, according to a study published in JAMA Oncology.

Researchers studied 45,834 men who were at intermediate to very high risk for prostate cancer using National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria between 2004 and 2017. The data came from the US Veterans Health Administration Informatics and Computing Infrastructure.

The mean age within the study cohort was 62.7 (range, 55 to 69) years, 31% of patients were Black, and 69% were White. The rate of any PSA screening was 28.6% among White patients and 29.6% among Black patients, and the annual rate was 9.9% and 9.4%, respectively. At diagnosis, Black patients had higher PSA levels than White patients (mean, 15.1 vs 13.0 ng/mL; P =.001).


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The primary endpoint was PCSM rate related with PSA screening in the 5 years prior to prostate cancer diagnosis. When patients were stratified by screening frequency, at 120 months, the cumulative PCSM incidence was 4.7% for Black patients who had annual screening and 7.3% for Black patients who had some screening. In the White cohort, the cumulative PCSM rate was 5.9% for those with annual screening and 6.9% for those with some screening.

Annual screening significantly decreased PCSM risk among Black patients (subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR], 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46-0.92; P =.02) but not among White patients (sHR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.74-1.11; P =.35).

The study authors concluded that annual PSA screening reduced the PCSM rate among Black patients. They noted, however, that these data may not be generalizable, as veterans have differing prostate cancer outcomes compared with the general population.

Reference

Sherer MV, Qiao EM, Kotha NV, Qian AS, Rose BS. Association between prostate-specific antigen screening and prostate cancer mortality among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White US veterans. JAMA Oncol. Published online August 4, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.2970

This article originally appeared on Oncology Nurse Advisor