Blood type may impact immunotherapy outcomes in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), according to a study presented at IKCS: Europe 2023.
The study showed that time to treatment failure (TTF) and progression-free survival (PFS) were longer among patients with type O blood than among patients with other blood types.
The retrospective study included 69 patients with metastatic RCC from a single institution who were treated with immunotherapy between 2015 and 2022. Only patients with information about blood type and toxicity were included in the cohort.
The median age at baseline was 59 (range, 27-89) years. The most common blood type was A (42.1%), followed by B (40.6%), O (15.9%), and AB (1.4%). The patients received immunotherapy alone (20.3%), dual immunotherapy (34.8%), or immunotherapy in combination with a VEGF tyrosine kinase inhibitor (42.0%).
The median TTF was significantly longer among patients with type O blood than among patients with other blood types — 8.09 months and 3.88 months, respectively (P =.017).
Among the 49 patients who discontinued immunotherapy due to progression or death, PFS was longer in patients with type O blood. The median PFS was 5.93 months in the type O group and 3.29 months in the other blood groups (P =.04).
Rates of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) were not significantly different between the type O blood group and the other blood groups (P =.09).
However, having an irAE was significantly associated with longer TTF (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.28-0.86; P =.0059).
“Although limited by small sample size, the findings suggest that patients with blood group O may have a preferential response to immunotherapy, especially with the presence of irAEs,” the researchers concluded. They noted that validation in larger cohorts is needed.
Wang Y, Jackson-Spence F, Young M, et al. Association of ABO blood type with toxicity and response to immunotherapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). IKCS: Europe 2023. April 21-22, 2023. Abstract 30.