Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Kaposi’s sarcoma may be more likely to occur in HIV-infected patients with higher CD4 counts and lower HIV RNA values, as well as Kaposi’s sarcoma patients after antiretroviral therapy (ART), according to a study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.1

Researchers led by Elizabeth Yanik, PhD, of the National Cancer Institute in Rockville, MD, identified 466 patients with Kaposi’s sarcoma and 258 patients with NHL through 8 clinical cohorts conducted in the United States.

All observed patients had an HIV infection and were observed for ART use, HIV RNA, and CD4 count at diagnosis across calendar time. They calculated for person-time and incidence rates for each category.

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The researchers found that Kaposi’s sarcoma was more frequently diagnosed after initiation of ART in recent years. There was a higher proportion of patients with NHL who received ART that became stable over time.

In addition, they found that an increasing proportion of Kaposi’s sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurred in patients with higher CD4 counts as well as those with undetectable HIV RNA.

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More person-time was found to be contributed by patients who received ART, had high CD4 counts, and had undetectable HIV RNA in more recent years. Incidence rates, however, remained stable or declined in these observed categories.


  1. Yanik EL, Achenbach CJ, Gopal S, et al. Changes in clinical context for Kaposi’s sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma among people with HIV infection in the United States. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Aug 9. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2016.67.6999. [Epub ahead of print]