Several cancer types were not associated with alcohol consumption. Meta-analyses found no association between alcohol consumption and bladder, brain, extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, endometrial, lung, and ovarian cancers, and uterine myomas, gliomas, or leukemias.24-32
Several meta-analyses demonstrated a protective effect of alcohol consumption and certain types of cancers, particularly hematologic malignancies and renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
A meta-analysis of 10 studies found that alcohol consumption lowered the risk of Hodgkin lymphoma compared with non-drinking (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.81) in a dose-response fashion. The association remained significant with light drinking (RR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57-0.89) and moderate to heavy drinking (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.60-0.87).33
Though one meta-analysis found an association between alcohol consumption and an increased risk of multiple myeloma (MM), another meta-analysis that included 26 observational studies demonstrated that ever-consumption of alcohol reduced the risk of MM (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.99), particularly among females (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69-0.89) and with wine consumption (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.67-0.89).34, 35 Another study, however, showed no association between alcohol consumption and risk of MM.36
Three meta-analysis demonstrated that alcohol consumption decreases the risk of RCC, with the most recent showing a dose-response relationship of 5% and 9% among males and females, respectively, with every 5 g of alcohol consumed per day.37-39 Wine consumption by women resulted in an RR of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.73-0.91), whereas beer consumption by males resulted in an RR of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83-0.91).
Pooled data from 5 prospective studies that included 1003 thyroid cancer cases demonstrated that consumption of at least 7 drinks per week decreased the risk of thyroid cancer (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.58-0.90), particularly for papillary tumors.40
The association of cancer risk and alcohol varies by tumor type, as alcohol consumption has been associated with several different types of cancers. No effect and a protective effect, however, have also been noted.
- LoConte NK, Brewster AM, Kaur JS, Merrill JK, Alberg AJ. Alcohol and cancer: a statement of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. J Clin Oncol. 2018;36(1):83-93. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2017.76.1155
- Bagnardi V, Rota M, Botteri E, et al. Alcohol consumption and site-specific cancer risk: a comprehensive dose-response meta-analysis. Br J Cancer. 2015;112:580-93.
- Schwedhelm C, Boeing H, Hoffmann G, Aleksandrova K, Schwingshackl L. Effect of diet on mortality and cancer recurrence among cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Nutr Rev. 2016;74:737-48.
- Jin M, Cai S, Guo J, et al. Alcohol drinking and all cancer mortality: a meta-analysis. Ann Oncol. 2013;24:807-16.
- Chen JY, Zhu HC, Guo Q, et al. Dose-dependent associations between wine drinking and breast cancer risk – meta-analysis findings. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17:1221-33.
- Gou YJ, Xie DX, Yang KH, et al. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer survival: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:4785-90.
- Ali AM, Schmidt MK, Bolla MK, et al. Alcohol consumption and survival after a breast cancer diagnosis: a literature-based meta-analysis and collaborative analysis of data for 29, 239 cases. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014;23:934-45.
- Ben Q, Wang L, Liu J, Qian A, Wang Q, Yuan Y. Alcohol drinking and the risk of colorectal adenoma: a dose-response meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2015;24:286-95.
- Zhu JZ, Wang YM, Zhou QY, Zhu KF, Yu CH, Li YM. Systematic review with meta-analysis: alcohol consumption and the risk of colorectal adenoma. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014;40:325-37.
- Zhang C, Zhong M. Consumption of beer and colorectal cancer incidence: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Causes Control. 2015;26:549-60.
- Cai S, Li Y, Ding Y, Chen K, Jin M. Alcohol drinking and the risk of colorectal cancer death: a meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2014;23:532-9.
- Liu X, Wang X, Lin S, Yuan J, Yu IT. Dietary patterns and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Cancer. 2014;110:2785-95.
- Prabhu A, Obi KO, Rubenstein JH. The synergistic effect of alcohol and tobacco consumption on the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109:822-7.
- Fahey PP, Mallitt KA, Astell-Burt T, Stone G, Whiteman DC. Impact of pre-diagnosis behavior on risk of death from esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control. 2015;26:1365-73.
- Wang YT, Gou YW, Jin WW, Xiao M, Fang HY. Association between alcohol intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer: a dose-response meta- analysis of cohort studies. BMC Cancer. 2016;16:212-22.
- Lu PY, Shu L, Shen SS, Chen XJ, Zhang XY. Dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Nutrients. 2017;9:38-56.
- Ma K, Baloch Z, He TT, Xia X. Alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Med Sci Monit. 2017;23:238-46.
- Lubin JH, Purdue M, Kelsey K, t al. Total exposure and exposure rate effects for alcohol and smoking and risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis of case-controlled studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170:937-47.
- Chuang SC, Lee YC, Wu GJ, Straif K, Hashibe M. Alcohol consumption and liver cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control. 2015;26:1205-31.
- Li Y, Mao Y, Zhang Y, et al. Alcohol drinking and upper aerodigestive tract cancer mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Oral Onc. 2014;50:269-75.
- Rota M, Pasquali E, Bellocco R, et al. Alcohol drinking and cutaneous melanoma risk: a systematic review and dose-risk meta-analysis. Br J Dermatol. 2014;170:1021-8.
- Latino-Martel P, Chan DS, Druesne-Pecollo N, Barrandon E, Hercberg S, Norat T. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy risk of childhood leukemia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:1238-61.
- Zhao J, Stockwell T, Roemer A, Chikritzhs T. Is alcohol consumption a risk factor for prostate cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cancer. 2016;16:845-58.
- Pelucchi C, Galeone C, Tramacere I, et al. Alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Ann Oncol. 2012;23:1586-93.
- Galeone C, Malerba S, Rota M, et al. A meta-analysis of alcohol consumption and the risk of brain tumors. Ann Oncol. 2013;24:514-23.
- Ye XH, Huai JP, Ding J, Chen YP, Sun XC. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and the risk of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: a meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:8780-8.
- Zhou Q, Guo P, Li H, Chen XD. Does alcohol consumption modify the risk of endometrial cancer? A dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017;295:467-79.
- Bagnardi V, Rota M, Botteri E, et al. Alcohol consumption and lung cancer risk in never smokers: a meta-analysis. Ann Oncol. 2011;22:2631-9.
- Yan-Hong H, Jing L, Hong L, Shan-Shan H, Yan L, Ju L. Association between alcohol consumption and the risk of ovarian cancer: a meta- analysis of prospective observational studies. BMC Public Health. 2015;15;223-35.
- Chiaffarino F, Cipriani S, Ricci E, et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of uterine myoma: a systematic review and meta analysis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0188355.
- Qi ZY, Shao C, Yang C, Wang Z, Hui GZ. Alcohol consumption and risk of glioma: a metal-analysis of 19 observational studies. Nutrients. 2014;6:504-16.
- Rota M, Porta L, Pelucchi C, et al. Alcohol drinking and risk of leukemia – a systematic review and meta-analysis of the dose-risk relation. Cancer Epidemiol. 2014;38:339-45.
- Tramacere I, Pelucchi C, Bonifazi M, et al. A meta-analysis on alcohol drinking and the risk of Hodgkin lymphoma. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2012;21:268-73.
- Sergentanis TN, Zagouri F, Tsilimidos G, et al. Risk factors for multiple myeloma: a systematic review of meta-analyses. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Lek. 2015;15:563-77.
- Psaltopoulou T, Sergentanis TN, Sergentanis IN, Karadimitris A, Terpos E, Dimopoulos MA. Alcohol intake, alcoholic beverage type and multiple myeloma risk: a meta-analysis of 26 observational studies. Leuk Lymphoma. 2015;56:1484-501.
- Rota M, Porta L, Pelucchi C, et al. Alcohol drinking and multiple myeloma risk– a systematic review and meta-analysis of the dose-risk relationship. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2014;23:113-21.
- Song DY, Song S, Song Y, Lee JE. Alcohol intake and renal cell cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Br J Cancer. 2012;106:1881-90.
- Bellocco R, Pasquali E, Rota M, et al. Alcohol drinking and risk of renal cell carcinoma: results of a meta-analysis. Ann Oncol. 2012;23:2235-44.
- Xu X, Zhu Y, Zheng X, Xie L. Does beer, wine, or liquor consumption correlate with the risk of renal cell carcinoma? A dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Oncotarget. 2015;6:13347-58.
- Kitahara CM, Linet MS, Beane Freeman LE, et al. Cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and thyroid cancer risk: a pooled analysis of five prospective studies in the United States. Cancer Causes Control. 2012;23:1615-24.