In a nested case-control study, an increased risk of lung cancer was significantly associated with high exposure to chlorimuron ethyl (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.02-2.96), and a nonsignificant trend was found for pendimethalin (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.98-2.31) and dieldrin (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 0.70-5.30) compared with no exposure.29 There was no association with other pesticides.

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Higher melanoma incidence was significantly associated with high exposure to maneb/mancozeb (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-49), parathion (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4), and carbaryl (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4).30 There was a dose-response relationship for all 3 pesticides (P ≤ .013 for all). Melanoma was not associated with 47 other pesticides.


A nested case-control study found an increased risk for pancreatic cancer among applicators with high exposure of pendimethalin (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.3-7.2) and the thiocarbamate EPTC (OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.1-5.4) compared with unexposed individuals, but no association was observed with other pesticides.31

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Aggressive prostate cancer was significantly more common among applicators with high exposure to the organophosphates fonofos (RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.22-2.17), malathion (RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.08-1.88), and terbufos (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02-1.64), and the organochlorine aldrin (RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.03-2.18) compared with individuals without exposure, all of which showed a dose-response relationship.32

Living in An Agricultural Area

Several studies evaluated the risk of cancer associated with living in a highly agricultural area or an area with higher pesticide use.