Slides - Page 11 of 11 - Cancer Therapy Advisor

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Melanoma of the foot at an advanced stage.

Melanoma

Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer, and the most deadly. It begins in the melanocytes, but may also begin in a mole or in other pigmented tissues, such as the eye. It is estimated that there will be 76,250 new cases of melanoma in the U.S. this year. The number of deaths…

The chemotherapy drugs fluorouracil (Carac, Effudex, Fluoroplex, generics), vinorelbine (Navelbine, generics), and daunorubicin (Cerubidine, Daunoxome) cause hyperpigmentation of the skin, nails, and oral mucosa. Hyperpigmentation can follow the distribution of veins, known as serpentine supravenous hyperpigmentation, or can be patchy and macular. Topical hydroquinone can decrease melanin production and help clear hyperpigmentation. The disorder typically resolves when chemotherapy is stopped.

Chemotherapy-Related Skin Toxicities

The incidence of cancer diagnoses is increasing worldwide as the world’s population grows and people continue to live longer. As a result, chemotherapy-related skin toxicities are on the rise and clinicians and patients alike should be prepared to recognize these disorders.

Black hairy tongue, as shown above on a 2-year-old boy, occurs when the filiform papillae that cover the tongue become enlarged and overgrown with fungi. The cause is not known, but may be due to poor oral hygiene or antibiotic use. Treatment is with thorough cleaning of the tongue and mouth with antifungal drugs. Photo credit: Dr. P. Marazzi / Photo Researchers, Inc.

Oral Mucositis

More than 40% of patients undergoing chemotherapy develop some degree of mucositis during the course of their treatment. Patients receiving radiation to the head, neck, or chest areas and patients who undergo bone marrow or stem cell transplant are even more likely to develop mucositis. Incidence of mucositis is higher with certain chemotherapy or total…

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